df command in linux with examples

by Jay

This post will teach you how to use the df command in Linux, including options and examples. All the below examples were tested on RHEL, CentOS, RockyLinux and Alma Linux.

The ‘df’ (Disk Free) command is an integrated application to find the available and disk use space on Linux servers and storage. This command is generally used by all the system administrators, as it is one of their key jobs to monitor the server and storage space.

df command reports the amount of space used and available on file systems.

Syntex:

# df [option]… [file]…

How to view the mounted partitions, their mount points, and amount of disk space used:

# df

Example:

[root@TechArticles:~]# df

Filesystem     1K-blocks      Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/sdb       263174212   6039072 243696984   3% /
tools          497334268 297890560 199443708  60% /init
none            12888212         0  12888212   0% /dev
tmpfs               4096         0      4096   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
none            12890644    435804  12454840   4% /run
none            12890644         0  12890644   0% /run/lock
none            12890644         0  12890644   0% /run/shm
none            12890644         0  12890644   0% /run/user
[root@TechArticles:~]#

Note: With no inputs, df shows the space utilized and available on all currently mounted file systems (of all types). Otherwise, df reports on the file system containing each argument file.

How to display all filesystems and their disk usage in human-readable format:

# df -h

Example:

[root@TechArticles:~]# df -h

Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/sdb        251G  5.8G  233G   3% /
tools           475G  285G  191G  60% /init
none             13G     0   13G   0% /dev
tmpfs           4.0M     0  4.0M   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
none             13G  426M   12G   4% /run
none             13G     0   13G   0% /run/lock
none             13G     0   13G   0% /run/shm
none             13G     0   13G   0% /run/user

Note: You can view a list of all the outputs in “Human Readable Format” by selecting the “-h” option. You may see the results of my previous examples’ disk space usage, which are measured in difficult-to-read bytes. This example, which measures all the sizes in GB and is simple for anyone to understand, is available. It is considerably simpler to read sizes in MB, GB, and TB than in KB. The power of 1024 was employed in the human-readable (‘-h’) format.

How to display the filesystem and its disk usage containing the given file or directory:

# df path/to/file_or_directory

Example:

[root@TechArticles:~]# df /dev/sdb
Filesystem     1K-blocks    Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/sdb       263174212 6039168 243696888   3% /
[root@TechArticles:~]#

How to display statistics of free inodes:

# df -i

Example:

[root@TechArticles:~]# df -i
Filesystem       Inodes   IUsed    IFree IUse% Mounted on
/dev/sdb       16777216  290958 16486258    2% /
tools               999 -999001  1000000     - /init
none            3222053     151  3221902    1% /dev
tmpfs              1024      18     1006    2% /sys/fs/cgroup
none            3222661     142  3222519    1% /run
none            3222661       4  3222657    1% /run/lock
none            3222661       1  3222660    1% /run/shm
none            3222661       1  3222660    1% /run/user

Note: The ‘-i’ option will list the inode details for each filesystem.

How to display filesystems but exclude the specified types:

# df -x squashfs -x tmpfs

Example:

[root@TechArticles:~]# df -x squashfs -x tmpfs

Filesystem     1K-blocks      Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/sdb       263174212   6039260 243696796   3% /
tools          497334268 298088452 199245816  60% /init
none            12888212         0  12888212   0% /dev
drivers        497334268 298088452 199245816  60% /usr/lib/wsl/drivers
lib            497334268 298088452 199245816  60% /usr/lib/wsl/lib
C:            497334268 298088452 199245816  60% /mnt/c
[root@TechArticles:~]#

Note: The ‘-x’ with the filesystem name/mount point name option will exclude details.

How to list the sum of total disk space usage?

# df -h --total

Example:

[root@TechArticles ~]# df -h --total
Filesystem           Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
devtmpfs             1.8G     0  1.8G   0% /dev
tmpfs                1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /dev/shm
tmpfs                1.9G  8.9M  1.9G   1% /run
tmpfs                1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/mapper/rl-root   34G  5.6G   29G  17% /
/dev/sda1           1014M  255M  760M  26% /boot
tmpfs                374M     0  374M   0% /run/user/0
total                 43G  5.9G   37G  14% -

Note: The overall disk utilization of all the file systems can be calculated by using ‘–total’ and ‘-h’.

How to list local based filesystem only?

# df -l
[root@TechArticles ~]# df -l
Filesystem          1K-blocks    Used Available Use% Mounted on
devtmpfs              1880348       0   1880348   0% /dev
tmpfs                 1910684       0   1910684   0% /dev/shm
tmpfs                 1910684    9032   1901652   1% /run
tmpfs                 1910684       0   1910684   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/mapper/rl-root  35339408 5826616  29512792  17% /
/dev/sda1             1038336  260216    778120  26% /boot
tmpfs                  382136       0    382136   0% /run/user/0

Note: The “-l” option can be used to filter out the full network/remote-based file system and only list the local-based file system,

How to list the file system usage in MegaByte (MB)?

# df -m

Example:

[root@TechArticles ~]# df -m
Filesystem          1M-blocks  Used Available Use% Mounted on
devtmpfs                 1837     0      1837   0% /dev
tmpfs                    1866     0      1866   0% /dev/shm
tmpfs                    1866     9      1858   1% /run
tmpfs                    1866     0      1866   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/mapper/rl-root     34512  5690     28822  17% /
/dev/sda1                1014   255       760  26% /boot
tmpfs                     374     0       374   0% /run/user/0

Note: The ‘-m’ option list the output of all file systems’ disk space use in MB (megabytes).

How to check file system type and list the disk uses?

# df -Th

Example:

[root@TechArticles ~]# df -Th
Filesystem          Type      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
devtmpfs            devtmpfs  1.8G     0  1.8G   0% /dev
tmpfs               tmpfs     1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /dev/shm
tmpfs               tmpfs     1.9G  8.9M  1.9G   1% /run
tmpfs               tmpfs     1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/mapper/rl-root xfs        34G  5.6G   29G  17% /
/dev/sda1           xfs      1014M  255M  760M  26% /boot
tmpfs               tmpfs     374M     0  374M   0% /run/user/0

Note: A list of file system types can be obtained with the “-T” option. The types of file systems are displayed as “ext4,tmpfs,ext2” in the second column “TYPE” of the example above.

How to check disk usage details for a specific file system type?

# df -t xfs

Example:

[root@TechArticles ~]# df -t xfs
Filesystem          1K-blocks    Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/rl-root  35339408 5826616  29512792  17% /
/dev/sda1             1038336  260216    778120  26% /boot

Note: The “-t” option allows us to filter the output of a particular file system. Listed above the “xfs” file system in this example.

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